Prewar and Postwar Countries 1939-1947

The DXCC Countries 1939-1947. Second World War II caused a lot of political changes and this caused also lot of changes in the DX Countries List. It was not easy to construct a good Countries List, but the the ARRL cleared the job. The new DXCC list was published in February, 1947, QST (page 49-50). If you compare the 1947 Countries List with the last Prewar List, then some changes are remarkable. However the DXCC rules did not tell how countries did count for the DXCC award and how a new country could get on the list. The New “Countries “ Austria (got old prefix OE) In a strict sense, Austria was not a participant in World War II because it did not formally exist when the war began with the invasion of Poland in September 1939. On an individual level, however, some 800,000 Austrians were drafted into the army (the German Wehrmacht), and another 150,000 served in the Waffen SS, an elite Nazi military unit. Austrians were integrated into German units, and no specifically Austrian military brigades were formed. Important for Austria's future, however, was the evolution in the Allies' position on Austria. In November 1943, the foreign ministers of the Soviet Union, Britain, and the United States met and issued the Moscow Declaration. The declaration described Austria as "the first victim of Hitlerite aggression" and called for the reestablishment of an independent Austria. After World War II Austria was added again to the DXCC list. Basutoland (prefix ZS4) In 1818, Moshoeshoe consolidated various Basotho groupings and became their king. After some changes in control, in 1884 this Territory of Basutoland came (again) under control of Brittain. When the Union of South Africa was founded in 1910 the colony was still controlled by the British and moves were made to transfer it to the Union. However the people of Basutoland opposed this and when the South African Nationalist Party put its apartheid policies into place the possibility of annexation was halted. In 1945, it was still a crown colony, and was put on the DXCC list. Bonin Islands and Volcano Islands (no prefix assigned) The Bonin Islands, also known as the Ogasawara Islands are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some 1,000 kilometres directly south of Tokyo, Japan. The only inhabited islands of the group are Chichijima, the seat of the municipal government, and Hahajima, which includes Ogasawara Village. The Volcano Islands or Iwo Islands are a group of three Japanese islands south of the Bonin Islands that belong to the municipality of Ogasawara. The islands are all active volcanoes lying atop an island arc that stretches south to the Marianas. Iwo Jima was the site of the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II, and the island group came under the United States administration. This was the reason for putting the Ogasawara islands on the DXCC list with their Island names. The Bonin Islands and Volcano Islands were returned to Japanese administration in 1968 Comoro islands (no prefix assigned) The Comoro Islands or Comoros (French Les Comores) form an archipelago of volcanic islands situated off the south-east coast of Africa, to the east of Mozambique and north-west of Madagascar. The islet of Banc du Geyser and the Glorioso Islands are part of the archipelago. In 1946, the islands were no longer administratively attached to Madagascar and formed a united and recognized administrative entity. This was the reason for putting Comoro Islands on the DXCC list. As we can see here, in 1945 the Islands did belong to Madagascar, but for simplicity QSO’s from November 15, 1945 did count for Comoro Islands. Eire (prefix EI) Eire is “Irish” for Ireland. Why was this country a NEW one, and NOT on the prewar DXCC list? The state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non- executive president as head of state. It was officially declared a republic in 1949. The second most populous Island in Europa was put on the DXCC countries list. Guantanamo Bay (prefix NY4) The United States first seized Guantánamo Bay and established a naval base there in 1898 during the Spanish–American War in the Battle of Guantánamo Bay. In 1903, the United States and Cuba signed a lease granting the United States permission to use the land as a coaling and naval station. The lease satisfied the Platt Amendment; this amendment stated a naval base at "certain specific points agreed upon by the President of the United States" was needed to "enable the United States to maintain independence of Cuba." Guantanamo Bay is the largest harbor on the south side of the island and it is surrounded by steep hills which create an enclave that is cut off from its immediate hinterland. Little America (prefix KC4) Little America was a series of Antarctic exploration bases from 1929 to 1958, located on the Ross Ice Shelf, south of the Bay of Whales. The first base in the series was established in January 1929 by Richard Byrd, and was abandoned in 1930. Little America II was established in 1934, some 30 feet (10 m) above the site of the original base. This base was briefly set adrift in 1934, but the iceberg fused to the main glacier. Little America III was established for the 1940–1941 season some 6 miles (10 km) to the north. The site of Little America III was carried to sea in 1963. Little America IV was established in 1946–1947 as the primary camp for Operation Highjump. So Little America was put on the DXCC list. Very soon the Name was changed in Antarctica, covering the whole icy continent. RyuKyu Islands (Okinawa) (no prefix assigned) The Battle of Okinawa was one of the last major battles of World War II, claiming the lives of an estimated 120,000 combatants. The Ryukyus were the only inhabited part of Japan to experience a land battle during World War II. In addition to the Japanese military personnel who died in the Battle for Okinawa, well over one third of the civilian population, which numbered approximately 300,000 people, were killed. After the war, the islands were occupied by the United States and were initially governed by the United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 to 1950. Sikkim (prefix AC3) Sikkim is a state in Northeast India. It borders China in its north and east, Bhutan in its east, Nepal in its west and the Indian state of West Bengal in its south. Sikkim is also located close to the Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim became a British protectorate in the later decades of the 19th century, formalised by a convention signed with China in 1890. Prior to the Indian independence, the Vice President of the Executive Council, said that Sikkim and Bhutan, as Himilayan states, were not 'Indian states' and their future should be negotiated separately. A standstill agreement was signed in February 1948. So Sikkim did get on the DXCC list, because it was NOT an Indian State., but an independent State. Swan island (prefix KS4) At the turn of the century, Swan Island was set up as a U.S. Department of Agriculture animal quarantine station for the importation of beef. Also, the United Fruit Co. set up a wireless radio relay station for servicing their Caribbean fleet. During World War II, both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Weather Bureau stationed personnel on the island. This was the reason they put Swan Islands on the DXCC list Swaziland (no prefix assigned) In 1903, after British victory in the Anglo-Boer war, Swaziland became a British protectorate. In the period between 1923 and 1963, Sobhuza II established the Swazi Commercial Amadoda which was to grant licences to small businesses on the Swazi reserves and also established the Swazi National School to counter the dominance of the missions in education. His stature grew with time and the Swazi royal leadership was successful in resisting the weakening power of the British administration and the incorporation of Swaziland into the Union of South Africa So this British protectorate was added to the first Postwar DXCC list. Trieste (no prefix assigned) At the beginning of the 20th century, Trieste was a bustling cosmopolitan city .The city was the major port on the Austrian Riviera, and perhaps the only real enclave of Central Europe, south of the Alps. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of Trieste to this day. During World War II, the city saw intense Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity and suffered from Allied bombings. The city's Jewish community was deported to extermination camps, where most of them died In 1947, Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line established in 1945. So, this independent city became a DXCC country, and was put on the DXCC list.
Postwar DXCC - 01
Bonin and Volcano islands (now Ogasawara Islands, JD1) Little American (on Antarctica)( Little America on the move Sikkim at the top of the world (old AC3)